IEEE 100G Standard Overview
100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GbE) is the computer networking technology for transmitting Ethernet frames at rates of 100 gigabits per second (100 Gbit/s). The technology was first defined by the IEEE 802.3ba-2010 standard. The 100 Gigabit Ethernet standards encompass a number of different Ethernet physical layer (PHY) specifications. A networking device may support different PHY types by means of transceiver modules. Optical modules are not standardized by any official standards body but are in multi-source agreements (MSAs). The mainly used 100G standards are displayed in the table below:
|100GBASE-CR4||Up to 7m over twinax copper cable|
|100GBASE-CR10||Up to 7m over twinax copper cable|
|100GBASESR4||Up to 70m over Parallel OM3 Multimode fiber and 100m over parallel OM4 Multimode fiber|
|100GBASESR10||Up to 100m over Parallel OM3 Multimode fiber and 150m over parallel OM4 Multimode fiber|
|100GBASE-CWDM4||Up to 2km over Singlemode fiber|
|100GBASE-LR4||Up to 10km over Singlemode fiber|
|100GBASEER4||Up to 40km over Singlemode fiber|
100G Transceivers and Cables Meet the 100G Standards
Many fiber optic product vendors now provide 100G transceivers. For example, the company FS.COM provides 100G QSFP28 transceivers, with SR4 and LR4 versions, which are ideal choice for today’s high-density data center 100G interconnection. The SR4 version supports up to 70 m on OM3 MMF and up to 100 m on OM4 MMF. The LR4 version supports up to 10 km on SMF. Besides, FS.COM also provides 100G CFP/CFP2/CFP4 transceivers, all with LR4 versions. They are designed for use in 100G Ethernet links over single-mode fiber, supporting supports a link length of 10 km. From CFP to CFP4, the size becomes more and more compact to meet the high-density demands. 100G QSFP28 to QSFP28 twinax copper cables and active optical cables are also offered in FS.COM. The table below summarizes the FS.COM 100G transceivers and cables and the associated industry standards:
|Product Number||Description||Associated Industry Standard|
|QSFP28-SR4-100G||QSFP28 Transceiver, up to 100 m||IEEE 100GBASESR4|
|QSFP28-LR4-100G||QSFP28 Transceiver, up to 10 km||IEEE 100GBASELR4|
|CFP-LR4-100G||CFP Transceiver, up to 10 km||IEEE 100GBASELR4|
|CFP2-LR4-100G||CFP2 Transceiver, up to 10 km||IEEE 100GBASELR4|
|CFP4-LR4-100G||CFP4 Transceiver, up to 10 km||IEEE 100GBASELR4|
|QSFP28-100G-DAC||100G QSFP28 to QSFP28 DAC||IEEE 100GBASECR4|
|QSFP28-4SFP28-DAC||100G QSFP28 to 4 SFP28 DAC||IEEE 100GBASECR4|
|QSFP28-100G-AOC||100G QSFP28 to 4 SFP28 AOC||IEEE 100GBASESR4, with preterminated cables|
Cable Types Needed for 100G Transceivers
At present, there are three cables types used for 100G transceivers. 24 fiber MTP cable for 100GBASE-SR10 transceivers, 12 fiber MTP cable for 100GBASE-SR4 transceivers and LC cable for 100GBASE-CWDM4, 100GBASE-LR4 and 100GBASE-ER4 transceivers. Below table details the connector type of each 100G transceiver and the cable type to be used:
|Product Number||Fiber Type to be used|
|QSFP28-SR4-100G||MTP12 Multimode Fiber OM3 or OM4|
|QSFP28-LR4-100G||Duplex LC Singlemode Fiber|
|CFP-LR4-100G||Duplex LC Singlemode Fiber|
|CFP2-LR4-100G||Duplex LC Singlemode Fiber|
|CFP4-LR4-100G||Duplex LC Singlemode Fiber|
100G Direct Cabling Solutions
For 100G short direct cabling, we can use 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 transceivers or 100G QSFP28 to QSFP28 cables. Among, 100G QSFP28 to QSFP28 direct attach copper cable can support up to 5m and 100G QSFP28 to QSFP28 active optical cable can support up to 10m. 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 transceivers can support up to 70 m and 100 m respectively on OM3 and OM4 12 fiber multimode MTP cable.
For 100G long direct cabling, we can use 100GBASE-LR4 transceivers. 100GBASE-LR4 QSFP28, CFP, CFP2 and CFP4 can all support up to 10km on single-mode LC patch cables. You can choose the right 100GBASE-LR4 transceivers according to your switch port type.
100G Breakout Cabling Solutions
Just like the 40GBASE-SR QSFP+ transceiver can be connected to 4 10GBASE-SR SFP+ transceivers, the 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 transceiver can also be connected to 4 25GBASE-SR SFP28 transceivers. Like the 40G to 10G application, we also just need a 12 fiber MTP to 4 LC breakout cable.
Besides the transceivers, there also exists 100G QSFP28 to 4 SFP28 direct attach copper cables designed for 100G breakout cabling applications. This cable provides connectivity between system units with QSFP28 port on one side and up to four different SFP28 ports on the other. The cable connects data signals from each of the 4 copper pairs on the QSFP28 end to the single pair of each of the SFP28 ends, which enables higher port bandwidth, density and configurability at a low cost and reduced power requirement in the data centers.
Data center 100G optics market is accelerating. 100G transceivers and 100G direct attach cable assemblies are becoming more and more widely deployed in data center. 100G transceivers solution in this third party vendor include 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 and 100GBASE-LR4 QSFP28, CFP, CFP2 and CFP4. 100G direct attach cables solution include 100G QSFP28 to QSFP28 copper cable and active cable and 100G QSFP28 to 4 SFP28 copper cable. Besides, single-mode or multimode MTP and LC patch cables for 100G transceivers are also provided in FS.COM. All with competitive prices, superior quality and high compatibility.